A Greenpeace report, however, highlighted another aspect of the activities of fleets of Swedish origin in Western Sahara/Morocco. In early 2000, the Swedish pelagic fleet was assessed to have a 50% overcapacity, which adversely affected the sectors profitability. The industry agreed to the introduction of a system of individual quotas, which became fully transferable late in 2009. This individual transferable quota (ITQ) system means that a share of the total pelagic fishing quota was distributed free of charge to each vessel owner, based on the vessel owners historical catch data. The individual fishing quotas could then be sold to other operators.
The Swedish pelagic fleets fishing quotas soon became concentrated on fewer vessels and operators. The introduction of ITQs resulted in an immediate cancellation of 20 vessels from the Swedish fleet with a sharp drop of capacity, and increased profitability for those who remained. But the vessels had not been scrapped, so where had they gone? asked the report.
Greenpeace traced the journey of the vessels that left the pelagic fleet after the introduction of ITQs in Sweden. Five of these vessels are presently fishing off the coast of Western Sahara. Before individual quotas became officially tradable (20072009), three vessels had already been transferred to fish in Western Saharan waters.
Initially, all Swedish fishing operations off Western Sahara took place under charter agreements, which meant that the vessels remained registered in Sweden and operated by Swedish personnel in collaboration with Moroccan companies. This changed when almost the whole refrigerated fleet was bought up by Moroccan companies. But alongside other Scandinavian countries, Sweden continues to be a major exporter of vessels; several were transferred in early 2013 and further sales are planned.
The report highlights: "The FAO warns that catches of most small pelagic stocks should be reduced" and concludes that "this export of overcapacity has had significant negative socio-economic and environmental consequences for the region." Greenpeace therefore demands that EU member states prevent the transfer of excess fishing capacity to other regions.